Book of the Dead of the Priest of Horus, Imouthes (Imhotep)
Period: Late Period–Ptolemaic Period Date: 350–250 B.C. Geography: From Egypt, Middle Egypt, Meir (Mir) Medium: Papyrus, ink Dimensions: h. 35.2 x w. 1930.4 cm (13 7/8 x 760 in.) approximately based on sum of sections; originally a continuous roll about 72 feet long.
An Egyptian Book of the Dead is a compilation of incantations designed to assure the deceased admittance to the Hereafter, a good existence after death, and protection from evil powers such as serpents, crocodiles, and various demons. Beginning in Dynasty 18 a papyrus roll containing a selection of these spells was placed in the owner’s tomb, usually either within a statuette of Osiris or within the coffin.
This hieratic papyrus, which is arranged in a series of columns to be read from right to left, contains over 100 spells from the Book of the Dead (known to the ancient Egyptians as Coming Forth by Day). A continuous frieze of vignettes along the top, as well as larger drawings filling the height of the papyrus, illustrate or subsitute for individual incantations.
This papyrus, along with a second (35.9.19a–o), belonged to the Priest Who Supports The Body of Horus, Imouthes (Imhotep), the son of Psintaes (Pshentehe). His mother was the Musician of Hathor, Lady of Cusae (Meir), Tjehne. Since the family held priestly offices at Meir, where Imhotep’s coffin was found, the two papyri probably come from this Middle Egyptian town.
Tibetan Buddhist monks Create Mandalas Using Millions of Grains of Sand-The Mystical Arts
Imagine the amount of patience that’s required to create such highly detailed art such as this! To promote healing and world peace, a group of Tibetan Buddhist monks, from the Drepung Loseling Monastery in India, travel the world creating incredible mandalas using millions of grains of sand. For days or even weeks, the monks spend up to eight hours a day working on one mandala sand painting, pouring multicolored grains of sand onto a shared platform until it becomes a spectacular piece of art.
Why Physicists Are Saying Consciousness Is A State Of Matter, Like a Solid, A Liquid Or A Gas
A new way of thinking about consciousness is sweeping through science like wildfire. Now physicists are using it to formulate the problem of consciousness in concrete mathematical terms for the first time
There’s a quiet revolution underway in theoretical physics. For as long as the discipline has existed, physicists have been reluctant to discuss consciousness, considering it a topic for quacks and charlatans. Indeed, the mere mention of the ‘c’ word could ruin careers.
That’s finally beginning to change thanks to a fundamentally new way of thinking about consciousness that is spreading like wildfire through the theoretical physics community. And while the problem of consciousness is far from being solved, it is finally being formulated mathematically as a set of problems that researchers can understand, explore and discuss.
When mothers are exposed to trauma, illness, alcohol or other drug abuse, these stressors may activate a single molecular trigger in brain cells that can go awry and activate conditions such as schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder and some forms of autism.
Until now, it has been unclear how much these stressors have impacted the cells of a developing brain. Past studies have shown that when an expectant mother exposes herself to alcohol or drug abuse or she experiences some trauma or illness, her baby may later develop a psychiatric disorder, including some forms of autism or post-traumatic stress disorder, later in life. But the new findings, published online in Neuron, identifies a molecular mechanism in the prenatal brain that may help explain how cells go awry when exposed to certain environmental conditions.
Kazue Hasimoto-Torii, PhD, Principal Investigator of the Center for Neuroscience, Children’s National Health System, and a Scott-Gentle Foundation investigator, is lead author of the paper. Torii was previously at Yale, whose researchers were co-authors in the report. The research was funded primarily through National Institutes of Health grants.
Researchers found that mouse embryos exposed to alcohol, methyl-mercury, or maternal seizures activate a single gene, HSF1, also known as heat shock factor, in cerebral cortex. The HSF1 “plays a crucial role in the response of brain cells to prenatal environmental insults,” the researchers reported. “The gene protects and enables brain cells to survive prenatal assaults. Mice lacking the HSF1 gene showed structural brain abnormalities and were prone to seizures after birth following exposures to very low levels of toxins.”
Even in mice where the HSF1 gene was properly activated to combat environmental insults, the molecular mechanism alone may permanently change how brain cells respond, and may be a reason why someone may be more susceptible to neuropsychiatric disorders later in life.
Innovative work with stem cells also provided findings that supported the theory that stress induces vulnerable cells to malfunction, the researchers reported. For the study, researchers created stem cells from biopsies of people diagnosed with schizophrenia. Stem cells are capable of becoming many different tissue types, including neurons. In the study, genes from the stem cells of those with schizophrenia responded more dramatically when exposed to environmental insults than stem cells from non-schizophrenic individuals.
While it has been generally accepted that exposure to harmful environmental factors increase the susceptibility of the brain to neurological and psychiatric disorders, new types of environmental agents are continuingly added to the mix, requiring evolving studies, Hasimoto-Torii says.
Hashimoto-Torii notes that autism rates have increased substantially and “more people are having these exposures to environmental stressors,” she says. While there have been many studies that have identified singular stressors, such as alcohol, there have not been enough studies to focus on many different environmental factors and their impacts, such as heavy metals as well as alcohol and other toxic exposure, she adds.
Identifying many risk factors helped Hashimoto-Torii and other researchers identify the gene that may be linked to neurological problems. “Different stressors may have different stress responses,” she says. She examined risk factors specifically involving epilepsy, ADHD, autism and schizophrenia. Eventually, it may open the door “to provide therapy in the future to reduce the risk” and protect vulnerable cells.
Sharing a drawing with friends requires a lot of trust, but ultimately it helps artists to open up their expectations of what’s possible. To play Exquisite Corpse all you need is something to draw on and something to draw with. Each person takes a turn collaborating on a larger drawing, without knowing what was drawn before them. This technique was invented by the Surrealists as a game among friends, but quickly evolved into a source of inspiration.
Exquisite Corpse started as a game of chance, and with that game you’re bound to find coincidences. Look for similar symbols, lines, and shapes among the group. Record your data, and find answers to your statistical questions. More curriculum connectors can be found here.